Anal cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma or a type of skin cancer. If the tumor is outside the anal canal and relatively small, it can be successfully treated by local surgical incision alone. However, if the tumor is large or located within the anal canal, it is usually treated by radiation and chemotherapy. This type of tumor is very sensitive to this regimen and resolution without surgery is common. Extensive surgery is only indicated if the tumor is unresponsive to the radiation and chemotherapy or if there is a reoccurrence. The most common regimen to treat anal cancer is the Nigro Protocol, which includes radiation combined with 5 fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C.
For more information please visit:
The American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgeons